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    Common problems and solutions of white shrimp farming in southamerica

    Addtime:2016-10-12

     

    1.The water pH adjustment. The pH value of the suitable pH for the culture of Penaeus vannamei is 7.9-8.5. The pH of the pool is stable and the pH value is too high or too low will affect the growth of shrimp.

          Solution: the pH value of the pool is too high, can be applied to alkaline bacteria (acetic acid bacteria and lactic acid bacteria preparation) or industrial acetic acid regulation; pH is too low, can be applied hydrated lime regulation; if the pH is unstable, the morning and afternoon changes in the difference is too large , Can be applied marble powder, dolomite powder (calcium carbonate) and baking soda, in order to improve the water capacity of the buffer (that is, increase the concentration of carbon dioxide in water).

     2.Color red, white, black treatment. Shrimp pond water color red is dinoflagellate breeding too much, and the water white generally means a large number of bacteria breeding, black is the serious aging of water quality, organic content too much.

         Solution: first drain 50% of the water, in the sunny morning application of strong grams of 202 hours after the addition of water, afternoon, the use of super bottom net at night to increase the aerator start time, 72 hours after the application of green water or water Po (Bacillus), water quality can be normal.

     3.To prevent "turn water" and "algae". In the "water" before the occurrence of shrimp pond water surface is dim, then drainage 30-40 cm, the application of active black soil (humic acid sodium), then add water to the original water level. Aquaculture early "algae", the main reason is the lack of nutrients in the water, should be applied single cell algae auxin, to maintain water transparency in the 25-30 cm; late breeding "algae", because the water aging, 30-40 cm, the application of benefits water Po, and then add water to the original water level.

    4. How to suppress filamentous algae. South American white shrimp shrimp under the pool, the bottom of the production of filamentous algae, the main reason is that fertilizer is too long after the water is too shallow, water quality slim. At this point can not fertilize, otherwise the filamentous algae will quickly spread over the bottom of the pool, can not use drugs.

        Solution: add new water to the water level of about 1 meter, 1 meter per meter of water surface application of photosynthetic bacteria 5 kg, or from other health pool pumping introduction of algae species, in the sunny morning application of active black soil water treatment, and block the sun, re-application Single cell algae auxin rapid fertilizer, to maintain water transparency of 20 cm, two days after the filamentous rice will not be due to death and death.

    5.After the rainstorm shrimp pond management. Typhoon and rainstorms are likely to cause serious temperature drop in the temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen of the aquaculture pond. The pH value is drastically decreased and the bottom hypoxia may occur. The phenomenon of "algae" is extremely unfavorable to the growth of Penaeus vannamei.

        Solution: After the storm to open the aerator, with slaked lime to adjust the pH value of the pool to normal, feeding appropriate reduction, you can temporarily stop feeding. In the feed to add immune polysaccharide, vitamin C, shrimp virus net and biological enzyme activity additives, enhance the anti-stress ability of shrimp.

    6.Pre-breeding should not be large row of large irrigation. On the issue of whether the "big row of large irrigation" problem has been controversial, but this mainly depends on shrimp constitution, shrimp pond water quality and water supply situation may be. South American white shrimp culture early and mid-term (breeding within 60 days), not large row of large irrigation. Late breeding (breeding about 90 days) water color concentration, low transparency, can be large row of large irrigation, displacement can reach or exceed 50%. But in the disease period, you can not large row of large irrigation.

    7. How to improve the survival rate of freshwater aquaculture. Penaeus vannamei is a highly adaptable shrimp, breeding in freshwater, growth rate and disease control than mariculture more advantages. The key factor in the success of the culture is shrimp desalination technology and improve the survival rate of shrimp under the pool technology. Shrimp from sea water to fresh water, the need for a gradual desalination adaptation process, desalination time can not be too short. South American white shrimp nursery field can only desalination desalination to 2-5 ‰, the farm to set a small pool (30-50 square meters), preparation and nursery salinity of the same artificial sea water, with industrial salt and seawater trace elements , Can also be used salt or natural seawater preparation. The first shrimp into a small pool, feeding shrimp or feathers, and inflatable to prevent hypoxia, add fresh water every day, pay attention to observe the reaction of shrimp, a day can reduce the salinity of 0.5-1 ‰, about 10 days , Salinity down to 0.5 ‰ below, shrimp to adapt to fresh water, can be transferred from a small pool to large pool farming. In the late breeding, to control the excessive propagation of cyanobacteria, to prevent water damage.

     8. Shrimp pond water how to do light The reason for the shiny of white shrimp farming is the light-emitting bacteria, light-emitting dinoflagellates and luminous insects. Water when the light, if not yet put seedlings, should drain the water, re-water, disinfection, fertilizers. Has been put the body of the water cell, should use single cell algae auxin rapid fertilization of water quality, so that water transparency to maintain 20 cm or less, the luminous phenomenon can disappear.

    9. Rapid treatment of severely deteriorated shrimp pond. The reasons for the serious deterioration of the shrimp pond quality: excessive pre-farming fertilizer, fertilizer application too much; feed too much feed, feed residue, fecal deposition; water quality control measures are not correct, disinfectant types and dosage used improperly, kill Bacteria and bacteria serious, corpse rot, resulting in serious deterioration of the sediment, liquid sludge is too thick, smelly, black, water transparency is very low, a variety of toxic and hazardous substances seriously exceeded.

         Solution: ⑴ each time the exchange of water 30 cm, 2-3 times in a row. Keep the water depth of 1.3 meters or so, open the aerator (water tank aerator), the use of water centripetal force, the sludge pushed to the middle of the pond, the use of the middle of the sewage system will be discharged from the pool, keep the bottom of the pond clean. ⑵ use of green water and other beneficial microorganisms after the activation of sand mixed with sand, let it sink into the bottom, decomposition of oxidized sludge. Fishing out the surface of floating objects. 5 days later, add water to the original water level.

    10. Identified due to solve the problem of shrimp swimming pool. South American white shrimp swimming pool performance shrimp along the pool kept traveling, until physical exhaustion, if handled properly, will be a major loss. South American white shrimp swimming pool mainly for the following aspects. ⑴ feed feeding inadequate, resulting in hungry swimming pool. Judgment Method: Some shrimp swim back and forth along the wall to find food. Solution: increase the amount of feeding, add in the feed allicin or benefits stomach treasure, and the amount of water. ⑵ serious deterioration of the substrate, the bottom of the hypoxia caused swimming pool. The performance of the symptoms for the shrimp fast travel. At this point should check the bottom of the pool, test water quality, see dissolved oxygen, nitrite, ammonia content is exceeded. Solution: Displacement of water 30 cm, open the aerator, and the application of green water antibiotics, Yishui Bao or fish in the high-energy complex bacteria, improve water quality. ⑶ habitual swimming pool, every first or fifteen, the month on the full moon, tide tide, the shrimp will change with the tide and frequent activities. This swimming pool is not very strong, but the food intake was significantly reduced, 1-2 days to return to normal.

        Solution: in the pool when the drainage of more than 30 cm, fast water reset, while stopping feeding, to promote shrimp sync shell, promote growth. ⑷ due to environmental (climate, water quality) mutation or infection, shrimp produce a strong discomfort, causing stress swimming pool.

        Solution: to improve the water level, the application of active black soil, in the feed to add shrimp virus net and immune polysaccharides and biological enzyme activity additives and other anti-stress drugs, to take preventive measures to prevent disease. ⑸ underwater swimming pool (also known as dark pool). This situation is difficult to find that the harm is also large, need to carefully observe the farmer, analysis of the reasons, the right medicine, to quickly resolve.

     11. Cure detoxification "dead end". South American white shrimp farming to 50-60 days, body length 6-7 cm, the prevalence of "dead end" problem. "Dead end" phenomenon for two reasons: infection Taura virus and nitrite poisoning.

        Solution: ⑴ exchange of water 30 cm, with strong grams 101 disinfection, for 2 days; the application of super bottom net treatment of sediment. ⑵ open aerator, 3 days later, the application of nitrocellulose or nitrone, mixed with zeolite powder, so that sink into the bottom of the pool. ⑶ in the feed to add shrimp virus net or strong liver spirit and immune polysaccharide, feeding 2 times a day, and even fed 7 days, "dead end" phenomenon will gradually reduce until the stop. In the cure after the observation, do preventive work, otherwise it will periodically peak death.

    12. Weak white spot disease can be cured. White spot white spot of white shrimp and bacterial leukoplakia. Bacterial leukoplakia take conventional method of treatment. Viral leukoplakia can be divided into virulent white spot and weak white spot disease. Very toxic leukoplakia (also known as hard shell white spot disease) There is no effective treatment. Specific symptoms: shrimp body covered with white spots, spots are very regular, was like flowers, the center of the obvious, crust is very hard, easy to peel, liver, pancreas enlargement, erosion. This situation should be decisive and not delayed. Weak toxicity white spot disease can be cured, mainly through the regulation of water quality and increase the immune resistance of shrimp. With strong grams of 101 water disinfection, 2 times, with active black soil treatment of water quality. 72 hours later, with probiotics, green water source of viable bacteria to improve water quality, supplemented by oral net shrimp virus net, immune polysaccharide, vitamin C and so on. Do not use irritating strong chemical disinfectants, otherwise it will accelerate the death of Penaeus vannamei.

    13, shrimp growers do not re-release seedlings. There are four reasons for the low growth rate of white shrimp shrimp: (1) Breeding of shrimp inbreeding, causing severe degradation of shrimp. ⑵ breeding process a lot of use of antibiotics, or high temperature nursery (more than 35 ℃). ⑶ infection of parvovirus, that is, infectious subcutaneous and hematopoietic necrosis. ⑷ shrimp feed lack of nutrition or formula unreasonable.

        Solution: the first three cases, should be promptly treated, re-release seedlings. For the fourth case should be replaced feed, appropriate feeding fresh feed, and in the feed to add Lee Po, immune polysaccharide, strengthen nutrition, while strengthening the water, to promote the South American white shrimp shelling.

    14. To prevent shrimp anaerobic floating head measures. South American white shrimp on the water dissolved oxygen requirements are higher (4 mg or more), once the hypoxia floating head, shrimp immune disease resistance and growth rate decreased sharply, pathogenic microorganisms swoop into, leading to disease. Therefore, the South American white shrimp farming is the most bogey oxygen floating head. In large-scale large-scale farms, every day to detect water quality, determination of dissolved oxygen content. When the dissolved oxygen in water dropped to 2 mg liters, take appropriate measures to prevent hypoxia floating head. Small farms or individual farmers, should be based on weather, water quality, breeding density, shrimp physiological state to determine the comprehensive, timely prevention. (1) the freshness of shrimp is suddenly reduced, and there is a large amount of shrimp in the wall of the pond, which is still in motion. (1) High temperature is hot or rainy weather,

         Solution: hypoxia floating head prone to around 6 o'clock in the morning, especially in bad weather, to strengthen the patrol and found that South American white shrimp has hypoxia signs, immediately open the aerator, increase the amount of water, and Mix the sand with high energy. After the phenomenon of hypoxia floating head temporarily lifted, the use of super bottom net or green water to improve water quality, to prevent hypoxia again. Shrimp farms should always be used as an antioxidant.

     15. Rapid control of water ammonia and nitrite. The reason for the production of ammonia nitrogen, nitrite and hydrogen sulfide in aquaculture water is due to the serious deterioration of the sediment, residual feed, fecal matter and dead organism. The use of disinfectant, water ecosystem imbalance, organic matter is not completely oxidized and decomposed The

        Solution: In the early stages of aquaculture, the use of green water source of live bacteria to regulate water quality, to create a natural ecosystem of water ecosystems virtuous cycle; aquaculture in the middle, the use of Yishui Bao or green water vitamins, improve the quality and water quality; late breeding, Or nitrone, to promote the normal operation of water benign ecosystems. And in the feed to add shrimp virus net, improve the vitality of Penaeus vannamei.

    16. Soft shell disease prevention and treatment methods. South American white shrimp soft shell disease symptoms for the shell thin and soft, shell and meat close to the separation, sometimes under the shell of water, crustacean rough, shrimp thin, poor activity. Soft shells shrimp intolerance transport, low value of goods. The causes of the disease are: ⑴ fed feed is not comprehensive nutrition, calcium and phosphorus imbalance, or long-term feed intake, which is the main reason for the occurrence of soft shellfish. ⑵ use of certain pesticides improper, a direct result of soft shell disease. ⑶ heavy metal ions in water content is too high, the deterioration of water quality in the late.

        Solution: ⑴ strict feed quality off, choose a comprehensive nutrition of high quality feed, do not feed mildew overdue feed. ⑵ in the feed to add immune polysaccharide and vitamin C, appropriate feeding fresh feed. Depending on the specific situation of eating shrimp, increase the number of feeding. ⑶ strengthen the exchange of water, the regular application of Bacillus, EM bacteria and other microbial viable preparations, and often use activated black soil to improve water quality and sediment, to maintain water ecosystem balance. ⑷ appropriate control shrimp stocking density. Retention of the bottom of the cultivation of the bottom of the pool to prevent the deterioration of shrimp pond quality.

     17. Non-biological gill silk black change prevention and treatment methods. There are four reasons for the occurrence of non-biological gill filaments (commonly known as black gill disease). ⑴ toxic black change. Aquaculture water by chemical substances, especially heavy metal ions, such as copper, cadmium, mercury, manganese, ammonia nitrogen, nitrite concentration is too high, low pH, resulting in chronic poisoning caused by black. Solution: regular detection of water quality, the use of clean water, the regular application of zeolite powder, active black soil, super bottom net, EDTA sodium salt to adsorb and complex toxic and hazardous chemical substances. ⑵ drug black change. Due to improper use of drugs, such as potassium permanganate, the amount of copper sulfate is too large, the drug adhesion to the South American white shrimp gill silk surface, damage the gills, causing black.

        Solution: Avoid the use of such drugs, or after use to strengthen the water, do not overuse. ⑶ nutritional black change. Lack of vitamin C or vitamin C content of the feed, causing gill black. This is more common. Solution: Regularly add vitamin C to the diet. ⑷ environmental black change. Aquaculture of water sludge, organic debris, residual feed, feces and other organic pollutants content is too high, adhere to the shrimp gill silk, often accompanied by fixed ciliates, causing black. Solution: strengthen the water, strengthen nutrition, open the aerator oxygen. Regular application of green water and other microbial agents, to maintain the ecological balance of water.

    18. Shelling failure disease prevention and treatment methods. There are three main causes of shelling failure in Penaeus vannamei. ⑴ shrimp infection with chronic diseases, eating reduced, physical weakness, crusting physical failure, leading to death. Solution: Add chitin, vitamin C and immune polysaccharide to the feed. ⑵ poor water quality, deterioration of the substrate, the water long-term low dissolved oxygen conditions, or low dissolved oxygen at night, the background of harmful substances is too high, shrimp in a high degree of stress, unable to shell. Solution: to strengthen the water, after changing the net with the net bottom, the active black soil treatment of water quality and substrate, 2 days after the application of Yishui Po or green water vitamins, to maintain good water quality and quality. ⑶ feed calcium deficiency or shrimp calcium metabolism disorders, resulting in difficult shelling.

        Solution: in the feed to add Lee Wei Bao, appropriate feeding fresh feed, while strengthening the water, to enhance the South American white shrimp on calcium and phosphorus absorption capacity.