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    Effect of Application of Humic Acid Fertilizer on Crops

    Addtime:2016-10-12

      The effect of humic acid fertilizers on improving the yield of crops and improving the quality of agricultural products is very significant. However, due to the application of different crops, different types of fertilizers and fertilizer in the proportion of the effective components of the difference between the yield and quality improvement is naturally very different, the increase in the rate of increase in the larger field crop growth of about 5% -15%, while the yield Larger vegetables are increased by 15% -30%. 

    According to the agricultural university test: strawberry application of humic acid compound fertilizer (N: P205: K20 = 10-10-13, humic acid 20%) comparable nutrient treatment yield 84.6%. From the aspects of improving the quality of agricultural products, such fertilizers have the effect of improving the content of nutrients such as sugar, Vc and so on and reducing the content of organic acids in the seed, and can promote the early coloring of fruit. Humic acid on the growth and development of crops Humic acid can stimulate plant enzyme activity and increase yield; stimulate the soil beneficial microbial reproduction and growth; improve crop cold, drought and resistance to pests and diseases; stimulate the growth and development of roots ; Promote the root of the respiratory; promote the formation of chlorophyll and plant sugar and amino acid formation, thereby enhancing the light and the role; increase the plant minerals and vitamins; thicken the fruit cell wall, to extend its storage time; Germination.By accelerating cell division, thereby stimulating plant growth; increasing crop yields while improving quality and improving its physical appearance and nutritional value. Humic acid is a slow release agent and stabilizer for nitrogen fertilizer, a synergist for phosphate fertilizer, a protective agent for potash fertilizer, a conditioning agent for medium and trace elements, and a chelating agent for synergistic effect on fertilizers. In addition, humic acid can also improve the crop drought, cold, salt and other resistance to stress. Humic acid added to the compound fertilizer made of humic acid chelate compound fertilizer, applied to the soil can reduce the fast nutrient fixation and loss, is a good soil conditioner. Humic acid is an organic weak acid, which contains a variety of active genes, such as quinone, phenolic, carboxyl, etc., it is this nature to make it a variety of functions in agriculture. 

    The role of a variety of functions mainly through: 1, to participate in various physical and chemical reactions in the soil, with a variety of substances to replace the way to interact; 2, by the roots, stems, leaves were plant absorption, involved in plant metabolism to complete. These features specifically for the form of humic acid with improved soil, increase nutrients, stimulate crop growth, detoxification, control pests and diseases, improve the fungicide, pesticide activity and other functions. Coal-based humic acid through a specific biochemical treatment, the original ecological humic acid ore powder made of active humic acid salt, and then by separation, purification made of activated humic acid powder. The activity of this powder is several times the raw ore powder. First, improve the role of soil as a conditioning agent, humic acid fertilizer into the soil, the improvement of soil performance in the promotion of soil aggregate structure formation, increase soil substitution capacity, improve soil buffer performance, strengthen soil microbial activity. 1. Increased soil aggregate structure: In all soil structures, the granule structure with particle size of 0.5-10 mm is ideal. This soil is because it has the following effects on fertility: ①, can coordinate the contradiction between water and air: with the structure of the soil, due to the large pores between the aggregate increase, greatly improve the soil permeability, easy to accept rainfall and irrigation water. Water from the large pores into the soil, and gradually into the pores within the capillary pores, so that the pool is full of moisture inside, the excess water continues to wet the following soil layer, reducing the surface runoff and erosion erosion. So this soil is not like the clay does not seepage, not like sand does not keep water. So that the pellets become a "small reservoir". After the water in the large pores, the air can be added. Adequate air between the aggregates, aggregates stored within the water, so to solve the contradiction between water and air, suitable for crop growth needs. After the rain or irrigation, the surface layer of soil moisture will evaporate, the surface layer of granular dry, and the lower group of particles cut off contact to form a separation layer, so that the underlying water can not rely on the role of capillary transport and evaporation, water to be preserved The ②, can coordinate the consumption of soil nutrients and the accumulation of contradictions: the structure of the soil with aggregates, large pores between the large enough oxygen supply, good aerobic microbial activity, so the surface of organic matter decomposition of nutrients and nutrient supply sufficient for plant use. Small pores within the pool lack of air, the decomposition of decomposition, slow decomposition of organic matter and nutrients to be preserved. The faster the decomposition of the granules, the more agglomeration within the granules, the slower the decomposition. So the structure of the soil is from the outer layer of the granules to the inner layer of the gradual decomposition of the release of nutrients, so that both on a continuous supply of nutrients to the plant, on the other hand, can make the accumulation of nutrients within the group, a "small fertilizer library" effect. ③, can make the soil temperature is relatively constant: As the aggregate to keep more moisture inside, the temperature change is small, so the whole soil during the daytime temperature is lower than the water is not water, sand at night higher than sand. Soil temperature is stable, it is conducive to plant growth. ④, improved farming and crop roots developed: a sticky structure of the soil viscosity is small, easy to cultivate loose, suitable farming period is long, and the root interducting resistance is small, conducive to hair roots. Humic acid is an organic colloidal material, formed by tiny spherical particles into a linear or grape-like, forming a sponge-like aggregates. It is cohesive and is the main binder of the soil. But its adhesion is less than the soil viscosity, so the soil loose. Humic acid can directly and clay minerals in the soil to produce humic acid - clay complex, complex and soil calcium, iron, aluminum and other forms of flocculent gel, the dispersed soil particles cemented together to form a "water stable Sexual aggregate structure ", that is, the water is not easy to loose solid lumps. Humic substances can increase the activity of fungi in the soil, mycelia can be wrapped around the soil, mycelia of the transformation products and some bacterial secretions, such as polysaccharides, amino sugar can also bond soil particles, enhanced Soil agglomerate structure of water stability, improve its resistance to erosion. Good soil permeability with agglomerate structure, the required oxygen and carbon dioxide gas can be exchanged smoothly, which is beneficial to seed rooting, germination and growth. Moreover, this kind of aggregate structure of the preservation of water, in the natural conditions are more volatile, so greatly improve the soil's soil moisture capacity. 2, to improve the soil buffer performance, improve the soil environment: humic acid is weak acid, it and potassium, sodium, ammonium and other monovalent cations, can be dissolved in water weak acid salts. Humic acid and its salts together to form a buffer solution, when the outside of the acidic or alkaline substances into the soil, it can to some extent to maintain the soil pH of the solution is almost unchanged, to ensure that crops in a relatively stable acid-base balance Growing in the environment. Acidic soil, hydrogen ion concentration, iron and aluminum oxide, the application of rot fertilizer, humic acid and iron, aluminum ion integration, the release of hydroxide ions and soil ions in the hydrogen ions from the neutralization reaction, thereby reducing the soil acidity. Alkaline earth, sodium carbonate harm crop growth, the application of rot fertilizer, sodium carbonate and humic acid calcium, magnesium, iron salts and other reactions, thereby reducing the soil alkaline. The reaction product is also a crop growth hormone. In addition, the application of rot fertilizer in saline soil, on the one hand to change the soil surface structure, cut off the capillary, undermine the conditions of salt rise, play a "salt effect", reducing the soil surface salt accumulation; the other hand, Substitution of large capacity, the soil solution of sodium ions on behalf of the absorption to the humic acid colloid, reduce the harm of sodium ions on crops. 3, in the role of humic substances, the formation of water-stable aggregate structure, to water, fertilizer, moisture, pH appropriate. Is an ideal balance of various substances on behalf of the system. This balance system is also suitable for a variety of beneficial micro-organisms, so that a large number of breeding.

     At the same time probiotics greatly decompose the organic matter in the soil, interact with the air, soil and water, and generate a lot of organic matter, which makes the organic matter content in the soil significantly improved. While the level of organic matter is the main measure of soil quality and disadvantages of the main indicators. Due to the formation of micro-ecological balance system, making the soil on harmful micro-organisms and pests have inhibitory effect. In short, the application of humic acid after the soil, can form a vibrant, full of vitality, suitable for cultivation of high quality soil. Second, the nutritional role of humic acid fertilizer nutrition, mainly in the roots and leaves directly absorbed, increased soil nutrient efficiency, improve crop nutrition conditions, reduce soil nutrient loss, promote crop nutrient absorption and improve fertilizer efficiency and so on. 1, for the plant to provide nutrients humic acid substances are organic substances, the plant body absorption has two ways: A. directly absorbed by the roots and leaves; B. rhizosphere secretions, rhizosphere enzyme and other microorganisms under the action of decomposition into Smaller molecules are absorbed by roots. All nutrients in the soil must be subjected to mass flow and diffusion to the surface of the root and then absorbed by the plant. The mass flow refers to the migration of nutrients with the soil through the soil voids to the crop roots. Diffusion refers to the mixing and dispersing of the solute due to the thermal power driven by the concentration gradient. Root can absorb the external material is dissolved in water substances, ion substitution, molecular substitution, and the absorption of the material is selective. Root is the crop and soil, air, water material substitution tool. Humic acid contains a variety of elements necessary for the crop, such as S, O, P, N, H, C, etc., their predecessor is the body of the body, the microbial decomposition of the product is the nutrients needed crops. So a part of it directly with the root substitution, into the crop body. In addition, some humic acid and soil insoluble metal ions complexes are soluble substances, such as: copper, iron, manganese, zinc, calcium, magnesium, water-soluble ions and root substitution, into the crop body. And these metal elements are necessary for the composition of a variety of active enzymes, they are humic acid complex, can be absorbed by the root of the effective substances, which is not available in other fertilizers function. At the same time humic acid also in this way into the crop body, and then participate in metabolism. The humic acid into the aqueous solution sprayed on the crop, can be directly absorbed by the stem and leaf; nutrients absorbed by the stem and leaf, known as root fertilization. It is a way for crops to obtain nutrients, this fertilization method has the following characteristics: a, because the stem and leaf area is large, and air, sunshine, water vapor direct contact, so the physiological activity is high, nutrient absorption faster than the soil root, Overcome crop deficiency symptoms. B, compared with the soil root fertilization, stem and leaf absorption does not exist in the soil nutrient fixation, passivation. C, in the late growth of crops or soil drought, waterlogging, the root activity decreased, after fertilization of stem and leaf can add nutrients. D, in the late stages of the crop during the reproductive stage, direct spraying of stems and leaves, can improve the utilization of fertilizer. Root effect of fertilization, mainly determined by the absorption of leaves, must first pass through the surface of the stems and leaves of the stratum corneum. And the terrestrial plant leaf surface of the epidermal cells covered with wax, wax is a semi-hydrophobic fatty acid polymer, which makes the leaves are not easily infiltrated by the solution, which is a major obstacle to the absorption of nutrients - wax can not make a lot of leaves Quickly absorb nutrients.

     Humic acid, especially fulvic acid, with excellent wetting, permeability, significantly reduce the surface tension, swelling of the fatty acid polymer, in the concentration gradient difference and potential difference under the action of nutrients can be successfully entered the plant body. Nutrient absorption has three ways: ① when the fertilizer spray on the foliage, the stratum corneum moist and expand, which makes the wax layer between the increase. Nutrient spread, through the stratum corneum into the cell wall and thus to the epidermal cell gap and cell membrane and through the external veins into the leaves and was absorbed. ② nutrients further along the epidermal cell wall to reach the deep leaves, the fence cells to absorb. The nutrients absorbed by the epidermal cells can enter the other cells through the intercellular cytoplasm. ③ absorbed through the pores of the cavity. Plant surface pores, itself is with the outside world for material and energy substitution channel. It can automatically and selectively absorb the application of nutrients, foliage a lot of pores, reaching 15-3000 per square centimeter, and part of the stomatal diameter of 8um or more, can absorb the nutrients sprayed on the surface. Due to the role of humic acid, making a significant reduction in surface tension, swelling of the hydrophobic layer, but also make the nutrients to enter the pores smoothly. In general, small and uncharged substances are relatively easy to enter the plant. Different plants, due to different thickness of leaf stratum corneum, leaf nutrient absorption rate is not the same, the thicker the stratum corneum, the more difficult to absorb some. Generally dicotyledonous plant cuticle thinner, and monocotyledons are thick stratum corneum, the other leaves to absorb nutrients is also easier, so should be sprayed on both sides of the leaves. Light can promote the absorption of nutrients in green leaf cells. In the case of light, the penetrating resistance of the stratum corneum to the fertilizer solution is reduced, but the nutrients on the foliage are often higher and the humidity is often lower , Fertilizer often quickly dry and affect the absorption. So, often can be seen at night to face the absorption of nutrients faster than the daytime. The moisture content of the leaves itself is also an important factor affecting nutrient uptake. Leaves are rich in water and are easy to absorb, such as insufficient water in the leaves, so that the leaf wax layer is tightened and "closed" foliage pores, thus hindering absorption. The rate at which the leaves absorb nutrients is parabolic in relation to the concentration of the fertilizer. That is, the initial increase with the increase in concentration, but the concentration increased to a certain extent, the absorption rate but decreased. However, in general, when the foliage is not harmed, the rate of leaf nutrient uptake increases with increasing fertilizer concentration. Stem and leaf pores and the surface and the roots are the same as the plant and the outside world for energy material substitution way. Because this approach does not require root conduction and transport, it can be more directly to the absorption of material and energy conversion, copy part of the crop itself, faster, more efficient. This is why we see the reasons for the faster improvement of the symptoms of the deficiency of the crop after fertilization by the stem and leaf under appropriate conditions. ①, increase the soil available nutrients: due to rhizosphere secretions, rhizosphere enzymes and other microbial effects, decomposition of humic acid can be root absorption of the material - smaller fragments. At the same time humic acid is also the rhizosphere microbial nutrients, the application of humic acid in the soil after the microbial activity is active, the number increased significantly.

     According to the determination of the application of rot fertilizer, soil decomposition of fiber microbes doubled, decomposition of amino acids in the ammoniated bacteria increased 1-2 times. In addition, according to the determination of the application of rot fertilizer, soil available phosphorus can be increased by 9-40%. Therefore, some people use humic acid fertilizer called phosphate fertilizer "synergist". In the production practice, rot fertilizer and phosphate rock mixed with the effect than the application of phosphate rock powder is better. Humic acid fertilizer to prevent the immobilization of soluble phosphorus and promote the activation of insoluble phosphorus: 1, humic acid and iron, aluminum ions to form complexes and chelates to promote the activation of phosphorus; 2, humic acid in iron hydroxide, hydrogen Aluminum oxide surface to form a protective film, reducing the iron and aluminum oxide on the phosphate ion fixation; 3, humic acid adsorption or substitution of calcium in the phosphate, improve the effectiveness of phosphorus. 4, humic acid through the same crystal substitution, the soil mineral adsorption of phosphate ions to replace, thus activating the phosphorus; 5, humic acid and insoluble phosphate to form carbonic acid - humic acid complex, so that phosphate activation. Humic acid can also activate the trace elements in the soil, such as iron, copper, manganese, zinc, calcium, magnesium, silicon and so on. Iron, for example, fulvic acid and iron chelate formed, the vitality of the crop has a good nutritional value. It has been pointed out that the chelate formed by the iron and humic acid that has entered the body, running up from the root, thereby improving the crop's ferulic nutrition. The same is true for other elements. ②, to maintain nutrients